Development of Indian press during British Rule-PART 2
Complete¬ Development of Indian press during British Rule-PART 1 before moving further.
In this article¬†Development of Indian press during British Rule-PART 2 we cover further with period post 1870 till Independence.
Early Phase of Struggle by the Nationalists for the Freedom of India Press 1870 ‚Äď 1918)
National Congress is also dependent on press for its proceedings and resolutions,for newspaper could reach masses.
Many newspapers emerged like The Bengalee by Surendranath Banerjee, Amrita Bazar by Sisir kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh,¬ Hindu and Swadesamitran by G.Subramaniya Aiyer, Indian Mirror by N.N Sen, Sudharak by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Maharatta(english) and Kesari by Balgangadhar Tilak, Hindustan and Advocate by G.P.Verma and many more.
On its part government enacted section 124(A) of IPC which was that if any one trying to spread disaffection against the government will be imprisoned for 3 years or fo life time.
Vernacular Press Act (1878)¬
- Nicknamed “gagging act“,this act gave Govt. indiscriminate power to limit the spread of newspapers and its contents.
- This Act ensured newspaper owners had no right of¬†re appeal¬ in case of suspension or punishment.
Newspaper Act (Incitement to Offences), 1908
- This act was enacted against the Extremists to check their activities.
- Magistrate had the power to confiscate press property in case of publishing objectionable material.
Indian Press Act (1910)¬
It focused on the negative features of Vernacular Press Act (VPA).
With the permission of the local government, District magistrate can call the publisher and printer to enter with undertaking to not to publishing any article or book which spread the disaffection among the citizens against the persons of different caste , religion and race and against the government.If magistrate found any charge then he can seize their equipment.
World War I and its effects on Indian Press
- Imposition of Defense of India to suppress free public criticism and the political agitation.
- Recommendations of Press committee who was chaired by Tej Bahadur Sapru, in 1921 which repealed the Press act of 1908 and 1910.
Indian Press (Emergency Powers)Act (1931)
- This act was enacted to suppress for Civil Disobedience movements.
- In 1932, further modified to undermine the government to include all the activities of it.
During Second World War II
- Pre-censorship was imposed under the Defence of India.
- Made amendments in Official Secrets act and Indian Press(emergency powers, 1931).
- Indian Congress’s publication declared illegal.
Indian Press faced many upheavals in the process of its developments,fulfilling its motto of reaching masses over the time.