Geographical Facts of India

Following are the Geography Facts about India.


  • The Union of India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 32,87,590 square kilometers and it is an important country of south Asia.
  • South Asia has a total area of about 4.488 million sq. km out of which India has the largest area (3.287 sq. km). It occupies 73.2 % of total area.
  • It is 4 times largest than Pakistan which is second largest in South Asia. India is 12 times largest that UK and 8 times largest than Japan.
  • The mainland stretches from latitude 8o4′ north to 37o6′ north and from longitude 68o7′ east to 97o25′ east of Greenwhich. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the country is almost same in degrees i.e. about 30 degrees.
  • The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Islands) is the Indira Point (6o45’ ), while Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
  • The 82o30′ E longitude is taken as Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India (from Naini, near Allahabad.) Hence Naini, Near Allahabad is the Standard Time of India.
  • The country is of a vast size and measures about 3,214 kilometers from north to south and about 2,933 kilometers from west to east.
  • Indian Standard Time:- GMT +05:30
  • Telephone Country Code:- +91
  • Coastline:- 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.



  • India lies midway between the Far East and the Middle East. The trans-Indian Ocean routes connecting the industrially developed countries of Europe in the west and the underdeveloped countries of east Asia pass close by. India being centrally located in South Asia, she enjoys an advantageous-position for doing trade with Australia and the countries of Africa, the Middle East and the Far East. Thus, India dominates the Indian Ocean and commands an important strategic position. Her land frontier is 15,200 kilometers long. Her northern borderland, being mountainous, is very difficult to cross and it offers very few transport facilities for trade with the arid, almost barren and very sparsely populated regions of Central Asia. India has a coastline of 6,100 kilometers in the main land and she depends on the Indian Ocean for bulk of her foreign trade. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep group of Islands and Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands is 7,519.5 km.


India Facts
Territorial Sea 12 nm (nautical miles)
Contiguous Zone 24 nm
Exclusive economic Zone 200 nm
Continental Shelf 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Longest River Ganga
Largest Lake Lake Chilka
Highest Point Mt. K2 (8611 m)
Highest Point of Himalaya Kanchan Junga (8,598 m)
Lowest Point Kuttanad (-2.2 m)
Northernmost Point Siachen Glacier near Karakoram
Southernmost Point Indira Point, Great Nicobar, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Southernmost Point of India (Mainland) Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari)
Westernmost Point West of Ghuar Mota, Gujarat
Easternmost Point Kibithu, Arunachal Pradesh
Highest Altitude Kanchenjunga, Sikkim
Lowest Altitude Kuttanad (Kerala)

Physical Boundaries :- The sub-continent is isolated in a remarkable way from the rest of Asia, making it a geographical unit. For example, barring the plateau of Baluchistan the two great ranges, namely, the Sulaiman and the Kirthar, cut it off from the west. Along the North the great mountains wall formed by the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and the Himalayas, cut it off the countries that lie beyond as the mountains are very high and difficult to cross. Similarly, the Southward offshoots of the Eastern Himalayas separate it from Burma.

The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the country is almost the same in degrees i.e. about 30 degrees. But in kilometers, the north-south distance (about 3,200 km) is more than that of the east-west.

The Himalayas and other lofty mountains- Muztagh Ata, Aghil Kunlun Mountains to the north of Kashmir and south eastern portion of Zaskar mountains to east of Himachal Pradesh – from India’s northern boundary, except in the Nepal region. She is adjoined in the north by China, Nepal and Bhutan. A series of mountain ranges in the east separate India from Burma. Also, in the east, lies Bangladesh bounded by Indian States of West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. In the north-west, Afghanistan and Pakistan border on India. The Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait separate India from Srilanka.

Locational Advantage:- India is a unique country as it is easily accessible to other parts of Asia, Africa, Europe and Americas. Its cultural influences have crossed its border from time immemorial and reached far off lands. It acts as a bridge head between developed and developing countries of the world and between the East and the West. India’s strength lies in its geography as much as in its culture. Since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, distance between India and Europe has been reduced by 7000 kms. India enjoys a favourable ocean routes from East and South-East Asia and Australia to Africa and Europe pass through Indian Ocean. India is connected with the Cape of Good Hope and the Suez Canal. India can also reach Canada and the USA through the Strait of Malacca after crossing the Pacific Ocean.

Geological Era

India has its own geological eras and periods. The standard geological eras are

  1. The Pre-Cambrian (over 570 million years old)
  2. The Paleozoic (245-570 million years old)
  3. The Mesozoic (66-245 million years old)
  4. The Cenozoic (66 million years old to the present)

The Indian Geological eras are

  1. The Archean or Early Pre-Cambrian
  2. The Purana or Late Pre Cambrian
  3. The Dravidian (400-570 million years old)
  4. The Aryan (400 million years old to the present)


The Pre Cambrian derives its names from Wales in the United Kingdom. The periods got their names from places where rock formations of that period were formed. The Pre-Cambrians do not contain fossils of plants and animals. The Paleozoic have the fossils of very early lives, the Mesozoic have middle lives and the Cenozoic recent lives.

Major Geological Formations of India
Indian Era Standard Geological Eras and Periods Duration of Period (in million years) Age from beginning (in million years) Major Formation in Peninsula Major Formations in Extra Peninsula
Aryan Cenozoic
(Recent Pleistocene) Tertiary
(Pliocene Miocene)
Jurassic Triassic
Less than 2 2 or 3 Newer Alluvial deserts, laterites Formation of Ganga Plains
Dravidain Paleozoic
Devonian Silurian
64 Tertiary Coastal Deposits Formation of Himalayas
Purana Pre-Cambrian
Late Pre-Cambrian
570 Vindhayan Cuddaph Dharwar Aravalli Archean systems Archean Gneiss


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