Soils of India : Classification,properties

Soils are essential resource of Earth,aiding in growth raw materials necessary for industrial production.

They’re formed by weathering of rocks over a long period of time.

Differences in properties of parent material gives rise to the necessity of classification of soils.

Soils Composition Properties Features Region
Alluvial Soil Rich In: Phosphorus,Nitrogen,Magnesium
Deficient: Potash


Found in delta of Northern rivers: Ganga and Brahmputra. Also found in deltas of Mahanadi,Godavari
Black Soil Rich In: Lime,potash,alumina,magnesium.
Deficient: Phosphorus,nitrogen,humus.
Clayey and deep in texture.
Water retention capacity: Black soils are impermeable,this leads to low absorption and lesser loss of water. Thus,increasing its water retention capacity.
Also known as Regur Soil,because of its self-ploughing capacity. Black soil swells up on absorbing water and become sticky and upon drying develops deep cracks,which helps in natural ploughing capacity of the soil. Best known for growing cotton. Found mainly in Deccan Region: Madhya Pradesh,Gujarat,Maharashta,Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu.
Laterite Soil Rich in: Iron and alumina. Deficient: Organic matter,potash,phosphate,nitrogen. Form in high temperature and high rainfall areas. (Hint: Tropical Areas.)
High temperature gives rise to a bacteria which rapidly depletes soil’s organic matter. Also,high rainfall leaches away sillica leaving behind iron and alumunium oxide.
Although not fit for cultivation. Upon proper mixing of nutrients they’re used in growing cashewnut in Kerala,Tamil Nadu. Laterite soils are also used in bricks for construction. Andhra Pradesh,Kerala,Tamil Nadu,High altitude areas of Orissa,Assam,Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra
Red and Yellow Soil Rich in: Lime,potash.
Deficient: Phosphate,humus,nitrogen.
These form out of the crystallized igneous and metamorphic rocks.,which are rich in iron Hence,the colour.
Red color is particularly derived from diffusion of iron in the rocks.
Yellow color occurs in the hydrated forms.
These soils are loamy in texture.
Generally fertile and suitable for cultivation. However,soils found in dry upland areas,they’re generally coarse grained and thus poor in fertility. Found in Eastern and Southern areas of Deccan Plateau.
Yellow soil is found in Orissa,Chattisgarh,Southern Ganga plain.


Red to brown in color.








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