Harappan Civilisation

  • Harappan or Indus civilization- 2500 B.C- 1750 B.C.

  • John Marshall was the scholar to use the term “Indus Civilisation”.

  • Indus civilisation belongs to Proto-historic or Chalcolithic or Bronze age.

  • The Indus civilisation was spread over the Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western U.P, and Northern Maharashtra.

  • Capital cities- Harappa and Mohenjodaro

  • Port cities- Lothal, Suktagendor, Allahdino, Balakot, and Kuntasi

  • Harappa site was first discovered by Daya Ram Shahni in 1921 situated at bank of river Ravi at (Punjab) Pakistan.

  • Mohenjodaro was first discovered by Rakahl Das Bannerji in 1922 situated at bank of river Indus at (Sindh) Pakistan.

  • Chahundaro by Mackay in 1925 situated at bank of river Indus at (Sindh) Pakistan.

  • Lothal by S.R.Rao in 1954 situated at river of Ghaggar at (Gujarat) India.

  • Kalibangan by Amalanand Ghosh in 1951 situated at river of Ghaggar at (Rajasthan) India.

  • Banawali by R.S Bisht in 1973 situated at river of Ghaggar at (Haryana) India.

  • Dholavira by J.P Joshi in 1968 situated at river of Luni at (Gujarat) India.

  • Mohenjodaro- the largest site of the Indus civilisation and Dholavira the largest Indian site of Indus civilisation.

  • Archaeological finds in Harappa are- 6 granaries in row, Working’s floor, Virgin Goddess, Lingam (Male sex organ), Yoni (Female sex organ), Painted pottery, R-37 Cemetry etc.

  • At Mohenjodaro- Great Bath, Great Granery ( The largest building of civilisation), Assembly hall, Bronze image of nude woman dancer etc.

  • At Chanhudaro- City with out a citadel, Inkpot, Lipstick, Ornaments etc.

  • At Lothal- Dockyard, Fire altars, Double Burial, Bird and Fox etc.

  • At Kalibangan- Ploughed field surface, 7 fire altars, Mesopotamian seal etc.

  • At Banawali- Lack of Drainage system.

  • At Dholavira- Unique water harvesting system, Giant water drainage system, and Stadium.

  • Surkotda- Bones of Horse.

  • Main crops are Wheat and Barley, Rice at Rangpur and Lothal only, Dates, mustard, sesamum, and cottan, and Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world.

  • Cow and Lion were not known to Indus People.

  • Iron was not known to the Indus People.

  • No evidence of coins, Barter system is assumed to have been the normal method of exchange of goods.

  • Lothal was an ancient port of Indus civilisation.

  • Indus civilisation was primarily urban.

  • The chief male deity was Pasupati Mahadeva (Lord of Animals).

  • Contemporary sites of the Indus civilisation- Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China.

 

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