Land revenue policy of British: Permanent, Ryotwari,Mahalwari
Land revenue policy of British was formulated to serve one end in particular,i.e. stable revenue. Apart from reducing India to an importing economy, its land policy lead to complete ruination of peasants.
Let’s see how the policies differed from each other.
|Who?||Lord Cornwallis introduced this system.||Thomas Reed and Munro introduced it.||Holt Mackenzie introduced this system.|
Bengal,Orissa and Bihar
Temporary settlements were made in Awadh.
|Madras,Assam and Bombay||Ganga valley, Northwest Punjab and Central India.|
10/11 of the total produce went to British and 1/11 to Zamindars.
|60% in irrigated land and 50% in dryland.||66% of the total produce went to the State/British.|
|Outcome||Made land commercial entity. Since ages, the land had continued to be a property of the State/Kingdom, yet the ownership vested in the cultivator.||Removed intermediaries but replaced by one big zamindar, The State.||Taxed entire lands, ranging from cultivated land to forested lands as well. Although, the Mahals/Villages were extracted rent in toto, yet the individual responsibility existed. Upon non-payment land could be sold to recover the dues.|
Land revenue consisted of the bulk of the revenue exacted by the British from Indians. Land revenue policy of the British made the land a commercial entity which ensured stability in income.