Landmark judgements in history of Indian judiciary
Law has been framed and reframed over the years via some significant court verdicts. Here is the list of Landmark judgements in history of Indian judiciary helpful for CLAT/AILET/DU LAW aspirants.
Keshvananda Bharti V. State of Kerala:- Court held the basic structure of the Constitution does not come under the purview of Article 268 ad hence,cannot be amended.
Berubari Case:- Court held,preamble was not a part of constitution. However,this judgement was overruled in Keshavanda Bharti case and made preamble an integral part of Indian Constitution.
R. Bommai v. Union of India:- The power of President to issue Proclamation under Article 356 is not an absolute power. The Court also held that ‘Secularism’ was part of the Indian Constitution before the word ‘Secular’ was added in the preamble. The Court also declared ‘Secularism’ as the part of basic structure of the constitution. The Court also declared that ‘Preamble indicates the basic structure of the constitution’.
Minerva Mill v. Union of India:- The Supreme Court observed that ‘Harmony and balance between fundamental rights and directive principle is an essential feature of the basic structure of the constitution’.
Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narain:-Supreme Court declared Article 392A unconstitutional, accroding to which the appointment of Prime Minister and Speaker cannot be challenged in any court.
First ever amendment to Indian Constitution was Chanpakam Dorairajan V State of Madras.
M. Nanavati V. State of Maharashtra:- This case marked the end of Jury Trial in India and the case was finally decided by the Bombay High Court.
Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India– Court laid down “due process of law” replacing “procedure prescribed by law”,observing that natural justice comes above the laws made by parliament.
D.M Jabalpur v. S. Shukla:- The Court held that right to move court under Article 14, 21 and 22 would be suspended during the emergency.
Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab:- The Supreme court upheld (in simple terms,confirmed the validity) the Constitutional validity of death penalty.
Indira Sawhney v. union of India:- This case is also known as Mandal Commission Case. The court has held that barring any extraordinary situations reservation should not exceed 50 per cent.
Hussainara khatoon v. Home Secretary, State of Bihar:- The Supreme Court talked about the Speedy Trial. The Court recognized the right to speedy trial and the right to legal aid services.
Sheela barse v. Union of India:- The Court held that right to legal aid is a fundamental right under article 14 and Article 21 of the constitution.
Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum:- Muslim Women has the right to claim maintenance under Section 125 of Cr.PC. The Remedy under Section 125 is available to wife (including a divorced wife), irrespective of the religion to which they belongs.
Recent landmark cases and their judgements
Vishaka vs State of Rajasthan:- Sexual harassment at workplace was the significant outcome of this case.
NALSA vs Union of India:- Constitutional rights were granted to Transgender,who were assigned Third Gender.
Shreya Singhal vs Union of India:- Art.66A of Information & Technology Act was declared unconstitutional on the grounds that o violated freedom of speech ad expression.
Above stated cases are the ones mostly asked in exams,prepare them well.