The word percent can be understood as follows:
Per cent => for every 100.
So, when percentage is calculated for any value, it means that you calculate the value for every 100 of the reference value. When you see the word “percent” or the symbol %, remember it means 1100. For example,
Percentage is a concept evolved so that there can be a uniform platform for comparison of various things. (Since each value is taken to a common platform of 100)
1. Concept of Percentage:
By a certain percent, we mean that many hundredths. Thus x percent means x hundredths, written as x%.
To express x% as a fraction: We have , x%=x100.
To express ab as a percent: We have,ab=(ab)*100%
2. Commodity Price Increase/Decrease:
If the price of a commodity increases by R%, then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is:
If the price of the commodity decreases by R%, then to maintain the same expenditure by increasing the consumption is:
3. Results on Population:
Let the population of the town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of R% per annum, then:
1. Population after n years =P[1+(R100)]n
2. Population n years ago=P[1+(R100)]n
4. Results on Depreciation:
Let the present value of a machine be P. Suppose it depreciates at the rate R% per annum. Then:
1. Value of the machine after n years =P[1−(R100)]n
2. Value of the machine n years ago =P[1−(R100)]n
5. If A is R% more than B, then B is less than A by
If A is R% less than B , then B is more than A by
Percentages – Fractions Conversions:
For faster calculations we can convert the percentages or decimal equivalents into their respective fraction notations. The following is a table showing the conversions of percentages and decimals into fractions:
We can go for converting decimals more than 1 from the knowledge of the above cited conversions as follows:
We know that 12.5%=0.125=18
Then, 1.125=[8(1)+1]8=98 (i.e., the denominator will add to numerator once, denominator remaining the same.
Also, 2.125=[8(2)+1]8=178 (here the denominator is added to numerator twice)
3.125=[8(3)+1]8=258 and so on.
Thus we can derive the fractions for decimals more than 1 by using those less than 1.
We will see how use of fractions will reduce the time for calculations:
Example: What is 62.5% of 320?
Solution: Value = (58)*320(since62.5%=58)= 200.
Important Points to Note:
When any value increases by
10%, it becomes 1.1 times of itself. (since 100+10 = 110% = 1.1)
20%, it becomes 1.2 times of itself.
36%, it becomes 1.36 times of itself.
4%, it becomes 1.04 times of itself.
Thus we can see the effects on the values due to various percentage increases.
When any value decreases by
10%, it becomes 0.9 times of itself. (Since 100-10 = 90% = 0.9)
20%, it becomes 0.8 times of itself
36%, it becomes 0.64 times of itself
4%, it becomes 0.96 times of itself.
Thus we can see the effects on a value due to various percentage decreases.
Note: 1. When a value is multiplied by a decimal more than 1 it will be increased and when multiplied by less than 1 it will be decreased.
2. The percentage increase or decrease depends on the decimal multiplied.
Example: When the actual value is x, find the value when it is 30% decreased.
Solution: 30% decrease => 0.7 x.
Example: A value after an increase of 20% became 600. What is the value?
Solution: 1.2x = 600 (since 20% increase)
=> x = 500.
Example: If 600 is decrease by 20%, what is the new value?
Solution: new value = 0.8 * 600 = 480. (Since 20% decrease)
Thus depending on the decimal we can decide the % change and vice versa.
Example: When a value is increased by 20%, by what percent should it be reduced to get the actual value?
Solution: (It is equivalent to 1.2 reduced to 1 and we can use % decrease formula)
When a value is subjected multiple changes, the overall effect of all the changes can be obtained by multiplying all the individual factors of the changes.
Example: Two successive discounts of 10% and 20% are equal to a single discount of?
Solution: Discount is same as decrease of price.
So, decrease = 0.9 * 0.8 = 0.72 => 28% decrease (Since only 72% is remaining)
Example: In an election contested by two parties, Party D secured 12% of the total votes more than Party R. If party R got 132,000 votes and there are no invalid votes, by how many votes did it lose the election?
Let the percentage of the total votes secured by Party D be x%
Then the percentage of total votes secured by Party R = (x – 12)%
As there are only two parties contesting in the election, the sum total of the votes secured by the two parties should total up to 100%
i.e., x + x – 12 = 100
2x – 12 = 100
or 2x = 112 or x = 56%.
If Party D got 56% of the votes, then Party got (56 – 12) = 44% of the total votes.
44% of the total votes = 132,000
i.e., = 132,000
T = = 300,000 votes.
The margin by which Party R lost the election = 12% of the total votes
= 12% of 300,000 = 36,000.