Relationship between British and Indian states: Various concepts for exams
This article delves into the relationship between British and Indian states: various concepts for exams required for exams like UPSC (See UPSC calendar here) and state PCS exams.
Relation between states and British
1. Struggle by East India for the subordination of Indian states(1740 -1765)
- In 1751, with the coming of Dupleix was the start of Anglo-French rivalry. East India Company captured Arcot in 1751 and asserted the political identity over India ending French hold over except for Pondicherry.
- In 1756, acquired the diwani of Bengal, Orissa and Bihar and became the significant power in India.
- In 1757, the Battle of Plassey acquired the political power in India. East India Co. formally took over with this victory.
2. Policy of Ring Fence (1765 -1813)
- Used by Warren Hastings war with Marathas and with Mysore for creating the buffer zone,i.e. ensuring cooperation of neighboring states to defeat the enemy.
- Policy of subsidiary alliance was extented by Wellesley. Yet another trick to gain control of states,wherein a state would resort to British army’s protection in lieu of money. This ensured no state had permanent standing army,rendering them vulnerable.
- Powerful states like Awadh , Marathas and Hyderabad accepted this subsidiary alliance policy.
3. Policy of Subordinate Isolation (1813-1857)
- Due to spread of ideas like imperial ideas and theory of paramountcy, Indian states accepted its supremacy.
- Surrendered all kind of sovereignty and their external administration,now they had control of only internal administration of their states.
- The charter act of 1833 , ended this act.
- Adopted the policy of lapse by Dalhousie to obtain the Indian states. In this policy if no adopted successor can be the king of the throne.
- Enraged masses led revolt against the authority resulting in Revolt of 1857.
4. Policy of Subordinate union (1857-1935)
- The policy of annexation was vacated and right to adopt their heir was accepted.
- The Act of 1858 transferred powers into the hands of the crown that is queen of Britain and known as Kaiser-i-Hind.
- The supremacy of Princes over their territory were abandoned but their right was recognised as gift from the paramount power.
- The fiction of the princes standing on a status of equality with the queen as sovereign independence states came to an end.
- The queen also exercised the right to regulate the status and statues of the princes in all the matters of ceremonials.
- The British Government has right to interfere in internal administration of Indian states and also external controls over them.
- Princes have to work shoulder to shoulder with the Governor General of India, it was Lord Curzon’s approach and view.
All these new schemes resulted into three categories by the chamber of Princes, further.
(a) Directly represented
(b) Jagirs or feudal holdings.
(c)Represented through representatives.
- To take Indian princes in confidence as under the policy of subordinate isolation(1813) this shift was made. Whenever it was possible for the company annexed states.
- To use the princely states as break waters in political situation in future , this policy of subordinate union was adopted.
- In the rebellion of 1857,due to their loyalty to the Britain , they were given liberal treatment as compared to others.
5. Policy of Equal Ferderation (1935 to 1947)
- The princely states were to be brought into a direct constitutional relationship with British India which was the part of the scheme.
- In the Act, States were to send representatives to the Federal Legislative.
- The nominees of the rulers of these states and not directly elected representatives of the people.
- These representatives were 1/3 of total number of Federal Legislatures.
- The Federation of India was to come into existence when rulers of states representing not less than 1/2 of the total population of the state and entitled to not less than half of seat allotted to the states in the upper house of the Federal Legislature agreed to join the Federation.
Integration and Merger
After the world war II, revolutionist adopted the policy of non-cooperation.
- British government tried to stop the deadlock through the cripps mission in 1942, Wavell plan in 1945, Cabinet mission in 1946 and Attlee statement in 1947.
The muslim Nawab of Junagarh wanted to join Pakistan but the Hindu masses of Junagarh wanted to remain in India so decision was in favour of India.
Hyderabad did not intend to join either dominion Pakistan or India. Hyderabad went on to appoint trade representatives in Europe and commencing negotiations with the Portuguese to buy Goa to give it access to the sea. But the violence in Hyderabad forced India troops to restore law and order, in November 1949 Hyderabad acceded in India.
Kashmir that is Jammu and Kashmir was ruled by a Hindu price but have majority of population muslims. Prince didn’t wanted to accede in either of the states but Pakistan wanted attack to Kashmir so he decided to became part of India in October 1947.